Parglare uses scannerless parsing. Actually, scanner is integrated in the parser. Each token is created/recognized in the input during parsing using so called recognizer which is connected to the grammar terminal symbol.

This gives us greater flexibility.

First, recognizing tokens during parsing eliminate lexical ambiguities that arise in separate scanning due to the lack of parsing context.

Second, having a separate recognizers for grammar terminal symbols allows us to parse not only text but a stream of anything as parsing is nothing more but constructing a tree (or some other form) out of a flat list of objects. Those objects are characters if text is parsed, but don't have to be.

Parglare has two built-in recognizers for textual parsing that can be specified in the grammar directly. Those are usually enough if text is parsed, but if a non-textual content is parsed you will have to supply your own recognizers that are able to recognize tokens in the input stream of objects.

Recognizers are Python callables of the following form:

def some_recognizer(input, pos):
   return part of input starting at pos

For example if we have an input stream of objects that are comparable (e.g. numbers) and we want to recognize ascending elements starting at the given position but such that the recognized token must have at least two object from the input. We could write following:

def ascending_nosingle(input, pos):
    "Match sublist of ascending elements. Matches at least two."
    last = pos + 1
    while last < len(input) and input[last] > input[last-1]:
        last += 1
    if last - pos >= 2:
        return input[pos:last]

We register our recognizers during grammar construction. All terminal rules in the grammar that don't define string or regex match (i.e. they have empty bodies) must be augmented with custom recognizers for the parser to be complete.

In order to do that, create a Python dict where the key will be a rule name used in the grammar references and the value will be recognizer callable. Pass the dictionary as a recognizers parameter to the parser.

recognizers = {
   'ascending': ascending_nosingle

grammar = Grammar.from_file('', recognizers=recognizers)

In the file you have to provide a terminal rule with empty body:

ascending: ;


If you want more information you can investigate test.